When Did Abortion Become Legal in Spain

When Did Abortion Become Legal in Spain

When Did Abortion Become Legal in Spain 150 150 ediadmin

Abortion remained illegal, eleven women were convicted of abortion in 1982. One of them was sentenced to ten years in prison. The law did not change until 1985, when medically induced abortions were allowed if the mother`s life was in danger, if the pregnancy was the result of rape (within the first 12 weeks), or if the fetus had a malformation (within the first 22 weeks). [26] [8] [27] Criminal penalties were still imposed when abortions were performed outside these restrictions, including one to three years in prison for doctors with loss of license and six months to one year in prison or a fine for women. [26] [27] Between 1987 and 1989, 58,000 abortions took place in Spain. [8] The year 1979 was decisive for the right to abortion with the Bilbao trial (Spanish: Juicio de Bilbao). Ten women and one man were prosecuted for abortion. The prosecution has announced its intention to seek prison sentences of more than 100 years. Although the trial was originally announced on 26 October 1979, it did not take place until 1982 due to several suspensions. Nine of the women involved were acquitted. A man who ordered the abortions and a woman who performed them were convicted. The verdict was appealed, but the appeal was suspended several times before being heard in late 1983. Four women were acquitted, while six women and one man were sentenced to prison terms.

In the end, these seven people will eventually be pardoned by the state. [17] [6] Six of the affected women had serious medical conditions that would have put their pregnancies at risk. The court later concluded that therapeutic interventions for abortion were justified. [6] In 1982, a demonstration in support of the Bilbao Eleven took place in front of the Palau de la Generalitat in Barcelona. At that time, they had been in prison for six years. At least one woman had been denounced by her ex-husband. In addition to prison sentences, the prosecution attempted to disenfranchise the defendants. During the protest in Barcelona, police violently attacked protesters and inflicted head injuries on several women. [24] An amnesty petition for the Bilbao 11 was signed by more than 1,300 women, including politicians, singers, artists, and journalists, all of whom said they had had abortions as well. All but those who performed abortions were pardoned in 1982. [25] Following the Bilbao cases, the government ended attempts to prosecute women who had performed illegal abortions. [6] Eugenics in Spain in the late 1930s and 1940s was not based on race, but on people`s political orientation towards the regime.

Ricardo Campos explained: “The race issue in Franco`s era is complex.” He explained: “Despite the similarities of the Franco regime with Italian and German fascism and the interest aroused by eugenics, the strong Catholicism of the regime prevented the defense of eugenic policies practiced in Nazi Germany.” He added: “It was very difficult to biologically racialise the Spanish population because of the mixture that has been produced historically.” Vallejo-Nágera, in his 1937 work Eugenics of Hispanic and Regeneration of the Race, defined Hispanic around spirituality and religion. The goal was to “psychologically strengthen” the phenotype. Since Catholicism was against negative eugenics, the only way to combat degradation was to suppress abortion, euthanasia and contraception. [4] The PSOE introduced regulations to legalize abortion in 1983 through an amendment to the Spanish Penal Code. [6] Abortion was eventually legalized by Congress later that year by a vote of 186 to 50, but did not go into effect until July 1985, when the Coalición Popular (now Partido Popular) challenged its constitutionality. The decriminalization of abortion was allowed for three reasons. The first was that it was ethical in the case of rape, the second that it might be necessary to save the mother`s life, and the third was eugenic in allowing abortion in cases of fetal malformation. [17] [20] [18] [6] The three conditions that allowed abortion were criticized, particularly on maternal mental health grounds, as opponents of abortion believed that in practice they allowed abortion on demand, even though women were legally required to have a psychiatrist testify about their mental health problems before the procedure could be performed.

[20] [18] Other countries have legalized abortion at the same time. Italy legalized abortion in May 1981 following a referendum, while in Portugal, abortion was legalized by parliament in November 1982. [17] “She was in need, and I was with her afterwards, and she asked me, `This will happen soon, won`t it? I want this problem to go away,” Dr. Sobreviela recalled, saying the woman would have an abortion. This law is still in force today and abortions can be performed free of charge in public hospitals or in private hospitals for a fee of €300. However, a decade after ratification, abortion is still a hotly debated issue in Spain, and women face many obstacles to exercising their legal right to vote. Between 1940 and 1950, 44 abortions were reported in the province of Zaragoza. Of these, 29 were single women or widows. Court documents suggest that single women and widows aborted to avoid the shame of having a child out of wedlock.

[1] [16] Prostitution was widespread in Zaragoza in the 1940s and was tolerated by the local government. Nevertheless, prostitutes are often accused of bribery and abortion of minors, most of whom are themselves minors. Prostitutes were also the largest population probably responsible for birth control. Married women who have had abortions tend to do so as a form of birth control to limit the number of children in their families. Women in Zaragoza convicted of abortion used a network to get help, with 38 out of 44 cases involving the help of other women, including mothers, sisters, neighbors and friends. These women gave information, contacted the midwife or went with the woman to the midwife. Abortions have been performed with things like knitting needles, parsley stalks, vaginal irritants, physical trauma, tubes, mustard baths, or ingesting substances. Most of these methods have been transmitted to women through oral tradition. Where their community could be identified, 21 came from the city of Zaragoza and 15 from more rural areas.

This is despite the authorities` efforts to make it appear that rural areas were ideologically more in favour of her. In Luna, 10 women were convicted of abortions, in an extreme case of apparently coordinated efforts to cover up the existence of a minor prostitution ring. Most of the girls were unable to sign their own names when they were brought in by the Guardia Civil. [1] Abortion was first legalized in Spain in 1985 in cases of rape or bodily harm to the mother or child. This was largely attributed to another provision in the 2010 law that gave health professionals directly involved in the procedure the right to conscientious objection – in other words, to refuse to perform an abortion as long as they declared their refusal in advance and in writing. In theory, a person`s refusal to perform or support an abortion should not prevent a woman from having one, nor should it affect the quality of her care. However, since the state also specified that this personal decision of a doctor should not be used to “discriminate” against him in a future recruitment process, it was not always possible for hospitals to guarantee that the majority of their medical staff were willing to perform the abortion procedure. As a result, no official register has been kept of the names of conscientious objectors – neither by Spanish medical institutions nor by the government – in order to avoid the possibility of this type of discrimination. In Europe, the use of medical abortion is generally widespread, although their use varies from country to country.

In 2010, 67% of induced abortions took place in Portugal, 49% in France, 40% in the United Kingdom and 70% in Finland. [38] In Spain, it was only 4%; in Italy, less than 4 % since the start of marketing of mifepristone in December 2009. [38] [39] When the U.S. Supreme Court rendered Roe v. Wadeâ, which has guaranteed women in this country the right to abortion for 50 years, shockwaves have been sent to the United States and throughout the Western world. The verdict was exceptional in that it was a complete reversal of the Court`s precedent; a precedent that was upheld by other Supreme Court decisions in the following decades. The 2010 law stipulated that in exceptional cases, a woman could be referred to a private medical centre if the public health services were unable to perform the procedure in a timely manner. However, this “exception” has become the rule in most cases.

The representations of the cryptocurrencies Bitcoin, Ethereum, DogeCoin, Ripple, Litecoin are placed on the motherboard of the PC in this figure from June 29, 2021. REUTERS/Dado Ruvic/Illustration Russia recently signed a new cryptocurrency law that, although on the verge of banning cryptocurrencies before, still imposes strict restrictions on its use as a monetary currency. This followed an earlier regulatory filing that essentially described all cryptocurrency-related activities as criminal and put them through the lens of anti-money laundering regulations. Moscow has announced plans to establish a central bank digital currency, but until recently it advised against using private cryptocurrencies. As of January 1, 2021, cryptocurrencies will be allowed in Russia, although they cannot be used in exchange for goods or services. There may be more regulation in the next few sessions, but from now on, it seems that Russians can mine cryptocurrencies, exchange cryptocurrencies for other cryptocurrencies, and own cryptocurrencies without any legal problems – as long as they don`t spend them on other goods and services within the national economy. Manturov was asked at a forum if he believed cryptocurrencies would become legal as a means of payment. In addition, natural and legal persons authorized to use digital currencies are required to inform the tax authorities of such a right, the turnover of their accounts and balances in cases where the amount of transactions exceeds the equivalent of 600,000 rubles (about 7,800 US dollars) in a calendar year. Failure to inform the authorities will be punishable by a fine of 50,000 rubles (about 670 US dollars). Failure to provide data on cryptocurrency transactions and non-payment of taxes on transactions processed with digital currency will be punishable by a fine of 40% of unpaid taxes. (Art. 129, § 5 para.

8) Russian banks will be allowed to open cryptocurrency exchanges under the supervision of the central bank – and new digital currencies will be able to be issued, but only again, under the control of the central bank. This represents a more liberal stance than some had predicted would be an almost complete ban on cryptocurrency activities in Russia, and shows a more pragmatic stance towards cryptocurrencies and their introduction in Russia. Other central bank officials said last year that they see no place for cryptocurrencies in the Russian financial market, citing threats to financial stability posed by the growing number of crypto transactions. Since January 1 of last year, cryptocurrencies are legal in Russia, but cannot be used to buy goods or services. May 18 (Reuters) – Russia will sooner or later legalize cryptocurrencies as a means of payment, Industry and Trade Minister Denis Manturov said on Wednesday, hinting that the government and central bank could move closer to settling their differences. After severe sanctions imposed on Russia after its invasion of Ukraine, Reuters reported in May that the Russian central bank intended to allow the use of cryptocurrencies for international payments as part of global trade. Russia intends to issue its own digital ruble, but the government has only recently supported the use of private cryptocurrencies after arguing for years that they could be used in money laundering or to fund terrorism. Among other things, the law has defined digital currency as a digital code used as a means of payment and as a savings instrument (an investment). (Art.

3.) However, residents of the Russian Federation are not allowed to receive digital currencies as a means of payment for goods, work or services. (Art. 14, § 5.) In addition, the law prohibits the dissemination of information on possible settlements in digital currencies; Offer and accept digital currency as a means of payment for goods, work performed or services transferred; or with another payment method in digital currency. According to the law, the digital currency is not legal tender for payments in Russia, and the Russian ruble remains the only official currency unit. (Art. 14, § 7.) In this way, Russia`s digital tools allow a total state of surveillance of digital activity. The new cryptocurrency regulation borrows from a similar approach – a strong centralized government institution (in this case, the Bank of Russia) through which all transactions flow, and a reluctant acceptance of the pragmatic reality that many Russian citizens have embraced and used cryptocurrencies, from the dramatic rise of IcOs hosted in Russia to the Russia-based social media network VK. who is considering his own cryptocurrency. Exchanges should also inform users of the risks associated with investing in crypto.

Investors should pass online tests to ensure that they have sufficient knowledge of cryptocurrencies and the associated risks. Those who pass the test can invest up to 600,000 rubles per year in cryptography; Those who do not are limited to 50,000 rubles. Qualified investors have no limits. However, the governor of the central bank, Elvira Nabiullina, said that the bank could not welcome investments in cryptocurrencies, which represent transactions worth about $5 billion a year by the Russians, and proposed to ban trade and mining. Manturov said that regulations for the use of cryptocurrencies will be formulated mainly by the central bank and then by the government. While the use of cryptocurrencies and crypto tokens has increased in the country, the Government of the Russian Federation has held discussions on how to legally define these products, integrate them into the legal system and establish the procedures for their taxation. On July 31, 2020, the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin signed Federal Law No. 259-FZ on Digital Financial Assets and Digital Currencies. This law governs relations with the issuance, registration and distribution of digital financial assets (DFAs). (Federal Law No. 259-FZ, Art. 1, §§ 1, 2 & 3.) The bill treats crypto as an investment tool, not as legal tender, and states that cryptocurrencies cannot be used to pay for goods and services.

It also specifies the requirements for cryptocurrency exchanges and OTC offices that must meet certain criteria in order to obtain a license and be included in a dedicated government registry. Foreign crypto exchanges must register legal entities in Russia in order to provide services in the country. The Russian Ministry of Finance is continuing its plan to regulate cryptocurrencies in the country and has submitted a draft law to Parliament. According to a press release issued on Monday, the bill was introduced on February 18. and is based on the previously approved roadmap designed by several government agencies, including key law enforcement agencies. In many ways, the history of cryptocurrencies follows some of Telegram`s themes overcoming censorship through popular adoption. Eventually, government officials began using Telegram to transmit messages themselves, and while Roscomnadzor set up several IP blocks, Telegram engineers worked day and night to ensure that security, privacy, and availability were as guaranteed as possible in the given circumstances.